The tipping point (revisited): 99K (1)

Our award-winning review: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology (2001) Neuroendocrinology Letters may have been republished at least twice without my permission and no notice was given.

See: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology (2004) Int J of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine

See also: Human Pheromones: Integrating Neuroendocrinology and Ethology (2007) Homeostasis in Health and Disease (2007)

Our claims were linked to the claims made by others about human pheromones, albeit without the ability to link everything known to our claims about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in this Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The facts about alternative splicings led me to review of a this book, which was published on 2/27/20

See: Serious scientists start with God’s Creation of energy as information

Simply put, they attack the accurate representations of facts from those who share the Abrahamic faiths after the facts were placed into the context of games for ages 10-14+

Subatomic: An Element Building Game
Periodic: A Game of The Elements
Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
Virus Expansion for Cytosis: A Cell Biology Game
Ecosystem
Genotype: After three generations, the player with the most points wins!

Pseudoscientists who start with millions of years of biological evolution are losers.

They failed to link light-activated microRNA biogenesis from the assembly of the microRNA-RNA-peptide nanocomplex to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans via the alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Most of the losers have continued to tout ridiculous claims about mutations and evolution. For example, watch Michael Behe skip past the on-screen display of “amino acid” as he links changes in genes to proteins and evolution.

This was Behe’s most despicable attempt to eliminate everything known to serious scientists about how biophysically constrained amino acid substitutions protect organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.

See also, Variability in protein cargo detection in technical and biological replicates of exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles 3/2/20

Without mention of microRNAs in the text of the article, the authors cite three publications about microRNAs.

1) Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells (2007)

In summary, we show that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be delivered to another cell, and can be functional in this new location. We propose that this RNA is called “exosomal shuttle RNA” (esRNA).

Note: It is common among those who must compete for funding to change the terms used. In this case the change was from microRNA to “exosomal shuttle RNA” and/or to exosome shuttle rna

2) Altered microRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes in asthmatic patients (2013)

These studies demonstrate substantial differences in exosomal miRNA profiles between healthy subjects and patients with unprovoked, mild, stable asthma. These changes might be important in the inflammatory response leading to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma.

3) Cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 export to uninfected cells exosomes containing STING, viral mRNAs, and microRNAs (2014)

Some miRNAs have been reported to suppress reactivation of latent virus. The results suggest that HSV-1 in special circumstances may control the spread of infection from cell to cell and support the hypothesis that HSV-1 controls its virulence to enable effective person-to-person transmission.

Again without mention of microRNAs or exosome shuttle RNA, the facts about energy-dependent microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation and viral latency were reported as: Variability in protein cargo detection in technical and biological replicates of exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles 3/6/20

The historical record of facts about microRNA-mediated variability in protein cargoes links microRNAs in milk exosomes to microRNAs in semen exosomes via the physiology of reproduction. The physiology of reproduction links biophysically constrained coronaviruses and other viruses to viral latency in all cell types of all individuals of all species across kingdoms.

The facts about viral latency have forced biologically uninformed theorists to attack anyone who challenges their ridiculous assumptions about billions to millions of years of evolution. Alternatively, as is common to those with passive-aggressive personality traits, people like Michael Behe tend to obfuscate what is known about biological based cause and effect, because it has been linked to all virus-driven pathology via the degradation of messenger RNA.

Summary:

1) All intelligent serious scientists know that healthy longevity is energy-dependent and microRNA-mediated in the context of RNA interference.

2) All pseudoscientists still tout millions of years of biological evolution.

See: Exploring Strategies To Bias Sequence in Natural and Synthetic Oligomers and Polymers 3/20/18

Millions of years of biological evolution have driven the development of highly sophisticated molecular machinery found within living systems. These systems produce polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids with incredible fidelity and function.

See for comparison:

microRNA

microRNA exosome

microRNA exosome milk

microRNA exosome semen

More than 99,000 indexed published works support claims that link light-activated microRNA biogenesis from the assembly of the microRNA-RNA-peptide nanocomplex to the physiology of reproduction and biophysically constrained viral latency via feedback loops. Claims that these energy-dependent feedback loops somehow evolved are not supported with experimental evidence of biologically-based top-down causation, which starts with God’s Creation of sunlight and water.

Sunlight and water were linked from the Creation of ATP to RNA synthesis in 1964. See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

By starting with the ATP-dependent synthesis of RNA in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation,  we linked changes in pre-mRNAs to biophysically constrained healthy longevity in species from microbes to humans.

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

See: pre-mRNA “alternative splicing” (3470)

pre-mRNAs also became known as microRNAs when more people learned about the role they played in every aspect of development across kingdoms and in every species-specific cell type.

See: microRNA “alternative splicing” (525)

See also: MicroRNA targeting of the non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway in the developing neural tube 3/4/20 and microRNA development (27170)

Whether you refer to them as microRNAs, pre-mRNAs, or exosome shuttle RNAs they are the link from God’s Creation of sunlight and water to all oxygen-dependent ecological adaptations via oxidative phosphorylation, which biophysically constrains viral latency across kingdoms via the physiology of reproduction and sympatric speciation in all living genera.

See how these recent examples of constraint breaking mutations are linked to the evolution of virus-driven hecatombic pathology for comparison to energy-dependent polycombic adaptations in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 review.

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

See for comparison, some of the most recent additions to the PubMed search engine at microRNA

[Expression of microRNA-17-5p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its effects on cell proliferation and invasion]. 2/23/20

Profile of pathogenic proteins and microRNAs in plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in Alzheimer’s disease: A pilot study. 3/2/20

MicroRNA-31-5p attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via quaking and circular RNA Pan3. 3/2/20

Therapeutic potential of KLF2-induced exosomal microRNAs in pulmonary hypertension. 3/4/20

Evaluating the Use of Circulating MicroRNA Profiles for Lung Cancer Detection in Symptomatic Patients. 3/5/20

Differential correlation of serum BDNF and microRNA content in rats with rapid or late onset of heavy alcohol use. 3/5/20

Interaction analysis of miR-1275/IGF2BP1/IGF2BP3 with the susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma. 3/5/20

Thermophoretic Detection of Exosomal microRNAs by NanoFlares. 3/5/20

Deregulation of mir-27a may contribute to canine fibroblast activation after co-culture with a mast cell tumour cell line. 3/5/20

MicroRNA-129-5p represses the growth and aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma via suppressing HMGB1. 3/5/20

Evolution of PHAS loci in the young spike of Allohexaploid wheat. 3/4/20

…non-coding phasiRNAs are conserved transcriptional regulators that display quick plasticity in Triticum genome. They may be involved in reproductive development and abiotic stress in wheat.

Claims about the evolution of loci in the cell types of any species on Earth have never been supported with experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect.

See for comparison:

The unnecessary suffering and premature death caused by biologically uniformed theorists will continue no matter how much more evidence supports the claims about microRNA-mediated constraints on viral latency. If I stop reporting the facts before The tipping point (revisited): 100K  appears here, it will be due to the ignorance of theorists.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author: James Kohl

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