The tipping point (revisited): 97K (1)

The tipping point (revisited): 96K (1) 1/1/20

Happy New Year! Unless you are a biologically uninformed theorist. If so, see first and suffer: The tipping point (revisited): 95K (5) 12/11/2019

During the 21 days from 1/1/20 to 1/22/20, the tipping point went from ~96,000 to 97,019. The difficulties for those still touting neo-Darwinian theories and/or Big Bang cosmology continue to mount at a rate of more than 1000 new published works per month.

See: microRNA 1-97019 1/22/20

Leading the way to more scientific progress, we have:

Seasonal phenotype-specific expression of microRNAs during metamorphosis in the European map butterfly Araschnia levana 1/21/20

“…we postulate that posttranscriptional epigenetic regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to the epigenetic control of seasonal polyphenism…

The epigenetic control of seasonal polyphenism was linked to The unique antimicrobial peptide repertoire of stick insects 10/18/19

This revealed a highly diverse spectrum of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belonging to the attacin, coleoptericin, defensin, thaumatin, and tachystatin families.

See also: Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Insecticidal Decapeptide from the Myrmicine Ant Manica rubida 9/29/19

The remarkable insecticidal activity of M. rubida venom suggests it may be a promising source of additional bio-insecticide leads.

See also: Epigenetic Mechanisms Are Involved in Sex-Specific Trans-Generational Immune Priming in the Lepidopteran Model Host Manduca sexta 3/4/19

…feeding larvae with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli or the entomopathogen Serratia entomophila triggered immune responses in the infected host associated with shifts in both DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

For more examples of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled sex-specific microRNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency and sympatric speciation, see also:

MicroRNA-127 Promotes Anti-microbial Host Defense through Restricting A20-Mediated De-ubiquitination of STAT3

…our data not only identify miR-127 as a non-coding molecule with anti-bacterial activity but also delineate an unappreciated mechanism whereby A20 regulates STAT3-driven anti-microbial signaling via modulating its ubiquitination.

Circulating Epstein-Barr virus microRNA profile reveals novel biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma diagnosis

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a tumor quite prevalent in Asia, is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status.

IFNB/interferon-β regulates autophagy via a MIR1-TBC1D15-RAB7 pathway 1/20/20

The relevance of these key players is deeply conserved from humans to Caenorhabditis elegans, highlighting the importance of this ancient autophagy regulatory pathway.

One nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled change in the physiology of reproduction links everything known to serious scientists about sympatric speciaton from  C. elegans to the predatory nematode, P. pacificus via biophysically constrained autophagy during the past 5-10,000 years.

See: The neurobiological consequence of predating or grazing

“The patterns of synaptic connections perfectly mirror the fundamental differences in the feeding behaviours of P. pacificus and C. elegans”, Ralf Sommer concludes.

Everything known was extended to  humans in Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants

MicroRNAs in milk exosomes and microRNAs in semen exosomes have been linked to the development of cancer and/or to cancer therapy.

See: The application of the miR-302/367 cluster in cancer therapy 1/20/20

These miRNAs have been implicated in several unique characteristics of cancer, including the evasion of growth suppressors, the sustained activation of proliferative signaling, the evasion of cell death and senescence, and the regulation of angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis.

The mechanisms for all virus-driven disease prevention have been detailed.

MiR-7a ameliorates spinal cord injury by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress

The [energy-dependent] up-regulation of miR-7a alleviated the injury-induced oxidative stress and inhibited apoptosis by down-regulating NF-κB pathway in SCI rats.

See also:Transcriptome-wide identification of novel circular RNAs in soybean in response to low-phosphorus stress 1/21/20

…regulation of circRNAs was both genotype and environment specific in response to LP [Low-phosphorus] stress.

For comparison, oxidative phophorylation was linked to ATP-dependent RNA synthesis in 1964.

Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has still not been linked from mutations to all pathology via what is known about microRNAs in exosomes, which are also called extracellular vesicles (EVs).

Cellular senescence contributes to age-dependent changes in circulating extracellular vesicle cargo and function 1/21/20

…circulating cell age does not substantially affect the expression of aging‐associated circulating EV miRNAs in old mice. Instead, we show that [virus-driven] cellular senescence contributes to changes in particle cargo and function.

Using different terms for the same thing is one way for pseudoscientists and other theorists to obfuscate cause and effect.

See: Control of human hemoglobin switching by LIN28B-mediated regulation of BCL11A translation 1/20/20

MicroRNA biogenesis may not be the only link from biophysically constrained viral latency to amino acid substitutions, ~1800 human hemoglobin variants, and ethnic diversity. Their results reveal a previously unappreciated evolutionary mechanism.

Dobzhansky (1973) may have missed this previously unappreciated evolutionary mechanism when he linked fixation of one RNA-mediated amino acid substitution to differences in the morphology and behavior of primates.

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).”

Effects of treatment with a microRNA mimic or inhibitor on the developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos 1/21/20

Treatment of reconstructed embryos 1h after electrofusion with an inhibitor of miR-145 for 1h decreased the apoptotic index and increased the blastocyst rate, total cell number, ratio of cells in the inner cell mass to trophectoderm, global levels of acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 18 and expression of Krueppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) in blastocysts. Treatment with an miR-145 mimic had the opposite effects.\

When we linked energy-dependent microRNA-mediated cause and effect From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996), microRNAs were called pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs).

See our section on molecular epigenetics:

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Facts that link microRNAs to protection from viruses or to virus-driven pathology seem to be buried in reports like this: MicroRNA-7, synergizes with RORα, negatively controls the pathology of brain tissue inflammation 1/20/20

Accumulating evidence has documented that microRNA-7 (miR-7) plays an important role in the pathology of various diseases. However, the potential role of miR-7 in brain tissue inflammation (BTI) remains unclear.

It may not be possible to link the Creation of the sense of smell in bacteria to healthy longevity, or to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology, until all serious scientists force all pseudoscientists to accept the facts about microRNAs.

Rats Sniff Off Toxic Air 1/21/20

Differences in MicroRNA regulations such as miR-33, miR-146a and miR-155 from rats’ blood samples revealed different mechanisms used by the rats in combating different air toxicant challenges.

It may never be possible for pseudoscientists to link the Creation of the enzyme, Klotho to the KL gene, which encodes a type-I membrane protein that is related to β-glucuronidases.

See: Klotho Ameliorates Cellular Inflammation via Suppression of Cytokine Release and Upregulation of miR-29a in the PBMCs of Diagnosed Alzheimer’s Disease Patients 6/13/19

Do not expect a cure or an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s or any other virus-driven pathology unless other intelligent scientists integrate the findings from more than 97,000 published works on microRNAs.

The MELAS mutation m.3243A>G alters the expression of mitochondrial tRNA fragments 6/11/19

Recent evidences highlight the importance of mitochondria-nucleus communication for the clinical phenotype of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases.

…we show that accumulation of mt i-tRF GluUUC depends on the modification status of mt tRNAs, which is regulated by the action of stress-responsive miRNAs on mt tRNA modification enzymes.

MiR-644a Disrupts Oncogenic Transformation and Warburg Effect by Direct Modulation of Multiple Genes of Tumor-Promoting Pathways 2/26/19

This study demonstrates that miR-644a therapeutically influences the CRPC tumor microenvironment by suppressing androgen signaling and additional genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, Warburg effect, and EMT (epithelial–mesenchymal transition)…

Obviously, if you cannot link light-activated energy-dependent oxidative phosphorylation to biophysically constrained viral latency via the microRNA-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition, it is because you have not followed the relevant extant literature during the past 6 years.

See: MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal fate determination 11/5/13

Author: James Kohl

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