The tipping point (revisited): 85,000 publications (3)

Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

For more of a historical perspective on what is currently known to all serious scientists, see:

Study of an RNA helicase implicates small RNA-noncoding RNA interactions in programmed DNA elimination in Tetrahymena (2008)

A Tetrahymena Hsp90 co-chaperone promotes siRNA loading by ATP-dependent and ATP-independent mechanisms (2015)

The loading of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs into Argonaute proteins is enhanced by Hsp90 and ATP in diverse eukaryotes.

The spliceosome-associated protein Nrl1 suppresses homologous recombination-dependent R-loop formation in fission yeast (2016)

…we establish roles for the evolutionarily conserved Nrl1 protein in pre-mRNA splicing regulation, R-loop suppression and in maintaining genome stability.

Energy-dependent pre-mRNA splicing regulation biophysically constrains sympatric speciation in the context of the ATP-dependent synthesis of RNA and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. No experimental evidence of top-down causation links that fact to the evolution of conserved proteins.

See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

See also: Changes in blood lipid concentrations associated with changes in intake of dietary saturated fat in the context of a healthy low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet: a secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) trial (2019)

Four of the 6 primary articles cited above were co-authored by Lucia Aronica, who will recapitulate our findings on epigenetic imprinting from 1996 in her presentation on 4/3/19.

See: Diet, Genes and Your Health: Unlock Your Genetic Potential by Using the Science of Epigenetics (with my emphasis)

Join Lucia Aronica, Lecturer, Stanford Prevention Research Center for this free webinar on epigenetics and how it can impact your overall welllness. Lucia will also be teaching the upcoming online course “Diet and Gene Expression: You Are What You Eat” starting April 15

She may not mention the fact that pheromones biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. But, if you start with the fact that “You Are What You Eat,” you are less likely to believe that you are species of bacteria that mutated during billions to millions of years and evolved to become a human.

See also: Pheromonal Regulation of Genetic Processes: Research on the House Mouse (Mus musculus L.) (1994)

A study of the influence of pheromone stressor(s) on proliferating germ and somatic cells was performed on laboratory lines of house mouse in the context of the physiological hypothesis of mutation process, proposed by M.E. Lobashev in 1947. Data from experiments are presented, and results obtained during last 10-15 years are discussed. The adaptive role of cytogenetic and other observed pheromonal effects is considered. The possible existence of interorganism systems of genetic regulation is discussed, the search for and study of which may help in more complete understanding of the regularities of functioning of genetic material.

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Author: James Kohl

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