Summary: Confused researchers at Rockefeller should meet with Bruce McEwen to learn why he said my 1992 model of biophysically constrained cell type differentiation could not be validated unless I started with gene activation in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of hypothalamus.
A replacement for the hypothesis-free pseudoscience touted by biologically uninformed theorists was published on September 26, 2018.
…we identified a gene that encodes a single G protein-coupled receptor, str-217, which is expressed in a single pair of chemosensory neurons that are responsive to DEET, called ADL neurons. Mis-expression of str-217 in another chemosensory neuron conferred responses to DEET. Engineered str-217 mutants, and a wild isolate of C. elegans that carries a str-217 deletion, are resistant to DEET. We found that DEET can interfere with behaviour by inducing an increase in average pause length during locomotion, and show that this increase in pausing requires both str-217 and ADL neurons. Finally, we demonstrated that ADL neurons are activated by DEET and that optogenetic activation of ADL neurons increased average pause length. This is consistent with the ‘confusant’ hypothesis…
Light activated microRNA biogenesis links selection for energy-dependent codon optimality from to RNA-mediated natural variants in plants to DNA repair and supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. Serious scientists have linked the degradation of messenger RNA from gene losses to all pathology in all living genera.
In the context of their ‘confusant’ hypothesis, it appears that they were confused by their failure to link the food energy-dependent creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction from biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity via feedback loops linked to longevity. Obviously, they are confused about the historical record of published works.
At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. Among these are areas involved in odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, arousal, reward, and other functions. This suggests that GnRH neurons are poised to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior in accordance with the overall state of the animal.
These studies also indicate that GnRH neurons are likely to influence numerous brain functions. They appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions…
Chemically-induced alterations in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance link the proliferation of viruses and the hecatombic evolution of pathology to the confusion of mutants that starts with the Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor.
For comparison, the lack of confusion can be linked from the food energy-dependent creation of achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide hormone to healthy longevity or to Biological Embedding of Early Social Adversity: From Fruit Flies to Kindergartners via publicaton of Redefining neuroendocrinology: Epigenetics of brain-body communication over the life course and the clarity of the energy-dependent “psycho-mito-somatic” framework, which was conceptualized in: Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Conceptual Framework (Part 1) and in Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review (Part 2).
I recommend that researchers at Rockefeller meet with Bruce McEwen to learn why he told me my 1992 model of biophysically constrained cell type differentiation could not be validated unless I started with gene activation in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of hypothalamus.
Alternatively, Vosshall, Bargmann and others could see: Dobzhansky (1973) Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.
Bruce McEwen and Dobzhansky presciently linked the hecatombic evolution of pathology to differences in primates via food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled changes in amino acid substitutions albeit via substantially different courses that they followed throughout life. Thank God, Bruce McEwen may be available for consultation.
See: Biology, molecular and organismic (1964)
The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
In Scientists investigate how DEET confuses countless critters, the so-called scientists from Rockefeller reported this:
…we’re just starting to uncover all the ways that it [DEET] can affect different neurons, receptors, and species.
When a chemical alters olfaction, epigenetic effects on hormones are linked to confusion by the affects of hormones on behavior. The confusion must be examined in the context of differences in neurons, receptors, and species.
See for comparison, the examination of similarities in: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
Olfaction was linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum.
For a video representations of the facts known to serious scientists about olfaction, gene activation, and behavior, see: