Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…
That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
A potential ramification of epigenetic imprinting and alternative splicing may be occurring in Xq28, a chromosomal region implicated in homosexual orientation…
Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus…
The link to sexual orientation from yeasts to humans was a neo-Darwinian theory killer. The theorists failed to link Darwin’s “conditions of life” from the Creation of the sense of smell to biophysically constrained viral latency via energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNA.
See also: pre-mRNA
Understanding across multiple levels of transcriptomic organization and regulatory networks provides an in-depth view to any physiological process in animals. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is an essential RNA processing mechanism that expands the coding power of genomes and gives rise to a wide variety of cell functions. In neurons, alternative splicing plays a key role in normal physiology supporting development, plasticity, complex behaviors and cognition. Many coordinated molecular mechanisms regulate splicing in a tight cell-type and time dependent fashion in neurons. These regulatory layers include chromatin structure, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and DNA and RNA binding partners; however how these factors converge to affect splicing outcome is poorly understood. Aberrant splicing is linked to a growing number of pathologies. Disruption in splicing and its regulatory networks define disease specificities. Recent studies highlight that understanding fundamental mechanisms of alternative splicing in neurons provides a comprehensive resource for therapeutic development, as it is promisingly shown for Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Here, we discuss recent progress towards understanding the complexity of multi-level control of alternative splicing in neurons, and how these findings inform new therapies to correct and control splicing defects.
See for comparison:
Disclosures: E. Ownership Interest (stock, stock options, royalty, receipt of intellectual property rights/patent holder, excluding diversified mutual funds); Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Stoke Therapeutics, Envisagenics, Skyhawk Therapeutics, Autoimmunity Biologic Solutions. F. Consulting Fees (e.g., advisory boards); Stoke Therapeutics, Skyhawk Therapeutics, Autoiimunity Biologic Solutions.
I do not care what he claims. Do not expect anyone with a list of conflicting interests like these to tell you the truth about the patent for naturally occurring RNA interference or the patented cure for all cancers.
5. Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).
A system of a recombinant bacteriophage library and a target of interest complex, wherein the recombinant bacteriophage peptide library includes a plurality of peptides expressed on the surface of recombinant bacteriophages wherein each recombinant bacteriophage includes (a) a pill protein; wherein each pill protein includes (b) a peptide or polypeptide involved in an intermolecular interaction, which differs by at least one amino acid from other peptides or polypeptides in the library; and (c) a modified protease cleavage site proximal to the peptide, wherein the modified protease cleavage site is the same in each bacteriophage, the modified cleavage site having a reduced binding affinity to a protease, as compared to a non-modified cleavage site, and wherein the target of interest complex includes a protease, a flexible linker attached to the protease, and a target of interest attached to the flexible linker, wherein the target of interest participates in an intermolecular interaction.