Earlier evidence: pheromones influence testosterone in men

Berliner, David L; Jennings‑White, Clive L., Adams, Nathan W. (1996) Pregnane steroids as neurochemical initiators of change in human hypothalamic function and related pharmaceutical compositions and methods. United States Patent # 5,563,13

The above patent incorporates the false concept that human pheromones act via the human vomeronasal organ (VNO), which has been shown to be non-functional. Nevertheless, this research and marketing  group (see below) might have been the first to show effects of a progesteronic (luteal phase) pheromone on testosterone levels in men.

Berliner, D.L., Monti‑Bloch, L., Jennings‑White, C., & Diaz‑Sanchez, V. (1996) Functionality of the human vomeronasal organ (VNO): Evidence for steroid receptors. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 58, 3, 259‑265.

Author: jim