Excerpt: “The change results in the amino acid glycine being substituted for serine at amino acid 183 in the PAX5 protein.”
My comment: Glycine is the “simplest” amino acid; it has only one “achiral” form. It’s substitution in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) protein and conserved conformation during what is believed by many people to be approximately 400 million years of adaptive evolution exemplifies the difference between nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution and mutation-initiated natural selection.
The difference between nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution and mutation-initiated natural selection is that no examples of mutation-initiated natural selection incorporate the physiology of reproduction (e.g., during what supposedly is 400 million years of vertebrate evolution). If there were any examples of mutations that via reproduction remained fixed in the genome for 400 million years, researchers could attempt to determine how the mutation in ALL might have somehow been naturally selected to remain fixed in any portion of any human population, and why it “…affects about 3,000 children nationwide annually…”
Instead, theories that incorporate mutation-driven evolution perturb any understanding of cause and effect by making it seem that substitution of glycine for serine at amino acid 183 in the PAX5 protein can be compared to substitution of glycine for alanine in the GnRH protein.
(I take this perturbed understanding of cause and effect personally since I was involved in specimen collection and the diagnostic testing that confirmed ALL in two children that I continued to perform testing on from 1974-1976).