Summary: This is a multi-omics approach to recalibration of the molecular clock. It is based on publications in “omics” journals for comparison to publications in predatory journals with subscription costs that are largely unaffordable in many parts of the world where researchers are not taught to believe in evolution as an explanation for anything.
Speciation involves the evolution of reproductive incompatibilities between diverging populations, including prezygotic incompatibilities that prevent the formation of hybrids and postzygotic incompatibilities that render hybrids sterile or inviable.
Strike the word “evolution” from the nonsense about speciation and you get the scientific truth:
Speciation involves reproductive incompatibilities between diverging populations…
The scientific truth was not reported on 1/3/19 as What makes two species different?
New research has shown there are… ‘selfish genes,’ whose flow among species may dictate whether two species converge or diverge.
See the excerpts (below) from a 1/5/19 presentation abstract for comparison to use of the terms evolution and ‘selfish genes’
1) Variation in mtDNA contributing to variation in metabolic rates can, in turn, be expected to drive differences in how organisms process energy from their environment.
2) …most gene products involved in mitochondrial function originate within nuclear DNA (nDNA).
3) The electron transport chain (ETC), the centre for ATP production, is composed of 13 mtDNA-coded proteins and 73 nDNA-coded proteins.
4) …the ecotypes have unique mtDNA haplotypes with two amino acid changes… that are highly segregated between ecotypes.
5) [energy-dependent] …sequence assembly and extraction of SNP data…[were linked to] Contrasts between the variation in mtDNA-coded and nDNA-coded ETC genes… at the level of the gene, protein, and ETC complex and interpreted in the context of mitochondrial physiology and function.
See also: Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology (4/12/13)
Perhaps the elegant mathematics and the extraordinary reputation of the scientists involved blinded us to what now seems obvious: the organism should never have been relegated to the role of mere carrier of its genes.
The question continues to repeatedly arise: Is divergence due to gene flow or to differences in the electron transport chain?
The differences in the electron transport chain were linked from the creation of subatomic particles and ATP to energy-as-information-dependent mitochondrial physiology and function via every level of biological organization that links electrons and photons to atoms and ecosystems in all living genera.
Energy as information appears to be responsible for the links from atoms to ecosystems in all living genera. The answer to most questions about physiology and healthy longevity can also be linked from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via the virus-driven theft of the energy-as-information.
For example of the link to the virus-driven pathology of cell type differentiation in humans, you must know that myelopoiesis is the regulated formation specifically of myeloid leukocytes, which also are called myelocytes and/or white blood cells (WBCs). Differentiation of the WBCs is linked to the readily quantifiable number of eosinophilic granulocytes (aka eosinophils), basophilic granulocytes (aka basophils), neutrophilic granulocytes (aka neutrophils), and monocytes. The monocytes are mononuclear cells, which means they have one nucleus that is not segmented for comparison to the segmented nucleus of granulocytes.
The claim that energy-dependent autophagy linked the differentiation of erythrocytes (aka red blood cells or RBCs) to the differentiation of WBCs, including the segmented granulocytes, was made in the context of energy-dependent microRNA-mediated autophagy.
We demonstrate here that the [microRNA-mediated] TNFα/neutral SMase/ceramide pathway inhibits erythropoiesis to induce myelopoiesis via modulation of a hematopoietic TF/miR network and inhibition of late steps of autophagy. Altogether, our results reveal an essential role of [microRNA-mediated] autophagy in erythroid vs. myeloid differentiation.
The claim that food energy-dependent microRNA-mediated autophagy links the differentiation of red blood cells to the differentiation of white blood cells, links human hemoglobin variants to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all human morphological and behavioral phenotypes via the pheromone-controlled fixation of amino acid substitutions.
For instance, the number of human hemoglobin variants links differences in what human populations eat from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. More than 1750 human hemoglobin variants have been discovered.
Abstract Excerpt 1)
The divergence either between chimpanzee and gorilla or between human and gorilla is slightly greater than that between human and chimpanzee, suggesting that the ancestral separations resulted from two closely spaced dichotomous branchings.
Abstract Excerpt 2)
Based on the relatively late dates and mounting corroborative evidence from unlinked nuclear genes and mitochondrial DNA for the close sister grouping of humans and chimpanzees, a cladistic classification would place all apes and humans in the same family.
See also: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.
See also: All in the (bigger) family
…last week at a special symposium of the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, researchers reported new parallels between these two very successful groups of animals and new insights about what it took for an ancient crustacean to give rise to insects.
“I’ve always been interested in speciation and how species form, but this is a whole different mechanism, that light can influence speciation,” Ellis says. “I thought it was just fabulous.”
The creation of light and the electron transport chain have been linked to every level of investigation that has been linked to speciation and none of the levels can be linked to anything except the creation of light. Placing the levels of investigation into the context of evolutionary theory may be the most ridiculous thing that theorists have ever done. They should probably stop doing it, today.