Human recombination and mutation mapped
Genetic recombination is an essential process in generating genetic diversity. Recombination occurs both through the shuffling of maternal and paternal chromosomes and through mutations generated by resolution of the physical breaks necessary for this process.
The essential process of genetic recombination is energy-dependent. The energy epigenetically effects biophysical constraints on viral latency as manifested in Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs).
That fact was reported as New Genetic Map of the Human Genome Sheds Light on Mechanisms of Genetic Diversity 1/24/19
…epigenetic factors influence crossovers and that crossovers are less frequent in transcribed regions, including regions marked by the H3K36me3 and H4K20me1 histone markers, and more common among enhancer regions, such as those with H3k27ac and H3K4me1 histone marks.
In combination with the increased de novo mutation rate observed near crossovers, the researchers theorized, evolution has guided crossover events toward regulatory regions and away from coding regions. That way, they said, it would reduce the number of harmful de novo mutations affecting coding regions while encouraging increased regulatory variation.
It’s been more than 115 years since Hugo de Vries defined “mutation.” The definition still exists in the context of de novo mutations that encourage increased regulatory variation. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality exists only in the context of the levels of biological organization that cannot be understood by biologically uninformed theorists.
See for comparison: Epigenetics: what impact does it have on our psychology? 1/24/19
We certainly have innate predispositions, but these provide only a baseline for our behaviour. We are, in fact, hard-wired to learn from experience – that is how we adapt to our particular circumstances and how our patterns of behaviour emerge. But this occurs through changes in our neuroanatomy, not in our patterns of gene expression.
Patterns of behavior are biophysically constrained by the availability of food and the physiology of reproduction. Both are required to link epignetically-effected changes in in hormones from differences in neuroanatomy to differences in behavior in species from microbes to humans.
The availability of food is biophysically constrained by the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy.
The ability of animals to find food requires the energy-dependent creation of odor receptors. Reproduction is controlled by the metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones.
Because unnecessary suffering and premature death is a money-making opportunity in the USA and other parts of the so-called Western World.
See for instance:
…emerging studies have proposed a role for microRNAs in the vascular effects mediated by estrogens. miRNAs regulate gene expression by repressing translational processes and have been estimated to be involved in the regulation of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals.
MicroRNAs have been linked from epigenetically effected sex differences in levels of hormones to the regulation of senescence. Light-activated changes in microRNAs have been linked to effective treatment of dementia.
Diverse roles of noncoding RNAs in vascular calcification (1/23/19) have been linked to “…therapeutic approaches based on the manipulation of noncoding RNAs….”
Transgenerational transmission of enhanced ocular dominance plasticity from enriched mice to their non-enriched offspring (1/21/19) was reported as: Mice pass on brain benefits of enriched upbringing to offspring
These findings emphasize the importance of documenting rearing conditions of experimental animals across generations.
The Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor (2016) can be compared to Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean (2015)
The creation of subatomic particles can be linked from cytosis to biophysically constrained viral latency via autophagy in games for ages 10+
But no amount of experimental evidence of energy-dependent top-down causation is sufficient to convince theorists or theologians that the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA will lead to more unnecessary suffering and premature death until they recognize what happened to turn Darwin’s “conditions of life” into mutation-driven evolution.
…viruses are not living, and in order to reproduce and to make ATP, they require all of the complex cellular machinery present in bacterial cells.
Celebrate Your Inner Virus (2017)
It is important that we understand the design present in viruses because God made them. All creatures of our God demonstrate his handiwork, and viruses are no different.
The ability to distinguish between viral and microbial RNA links the viruses in microbes to all diseases and energy-dependent biophysical constraints on viral replication in microbes from fixation of amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity…