Kohlian facts: ecological adaptations sans mutations

Since 1992, Kohlian facts have overcome the misrepresentations of evolutionary theory that bastardized Darwin’s works. Since 2012, these Kohlian facts have been represented in at least four different published articles.

In addition to my own published works, we’ve seen other relatives from an unknown Kohl lineage independently contribute to what theorists are now forced to consider.

History: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants 

Excerpt: These rare variants are so recent that they appear as novel mutations, with relatively little time for natural selection to operate.

Excerpt: “In conclusion, we presented refined models of the recent explosive growth of a European population. These models can inform studies of natural selection (21, 39–41), the architecture of complex diseases, and the methods that should best be used for genotype-phenotype mapping.
Excerpt: “To our knowledge, this is the first time anyone was able to directly test Haldane’s theory. We have proved it correct for the initial stages, when a new allele appears in a population. But our results show that further empirical work and more theoretical models are required to accurately predict the fate of that allele over long time spans.”
My comment: Evolutionary theorists accepted Haldane’s idea with no experimental evidence to support it. Thus, his idea became a widely-accepted theory, until experimental evidence showed that mutations are not fixed in the genome of the nematode, C. elegans.
Excerpt: “Our results indicate that simultaneous encoding of amino acid and regulatory information within exons is a major functional feature of complex genomes. The information architecture of the received genetic code is optimized for superimposition of additional information (34, 35), and this intrinsic flexibility has been extensively exploited by natural selection.”
My comment: There is experimental evidence that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions differentiate all the cell types of all individuals in all species. For example: “… the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones are involved in neurogenic niche construction as exemplified in nematodes (Bumbarger, Riebesell, Rödelsperger, & Sommer, 2013), and in flies (Swarup et al., 2013).
In 1996, we linked this experimental evidence to the molecular epigenetics of sexual differentiation at the advent of sexual reproduction in yeasts, which requires two different cell types that recognize their differences and “behave” appropriately based on the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that enable the development of sexual orientation in reproductively mature cells.

Clearly, the indication that natural selection requires the selection of nutrients, not mutations, has been included in the extant literature since Dobzhansky (1964). Therefore, what once appeared to be novel mutations must now be addressed by theorists. Indeed, there has never been any experimental evidence that mutations are somehow naturally selected.

History: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants 

Excerpt: “These rare variants are so recent that they appear as novel mutations, with relatively little time for natural selection to operate.”

Rare variants that appeared to be novel mutations can now be addressed in the context of what they actually are. They are not mutations, because there is not enough time for novel mutations to drive natural selection. They are nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions that arise due to ecological variations to enable ecological adaptation to the availability of nutrients.

See also: Exonic Transcription Factor Binding Directs Codon Choice and Affects Protein Evolution, since until yesterday it was the clearest indicator of how ecological adaptation occurs sans mutations, which is via amino acid substitutions in species from microbes to man.

Yesterday, I wrote, in Natural history replaces natural selection

“Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled developmental staging and life history changes in a moth species: Manduca sexta,  takes us from the ridiculous example of what some of us were taught to believe was mutation-initiated natural selection by bird predation in the peppered moth. We now have another accurate representation of ecological adaptations during the natural history of invertebrates, which is exemplified in all species.

Kumar, Sagar, Pandit, Steppuhn & Baldwin. 2013. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46’s role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense.

Pay attention as facts about natural history replace stories about natural selection. In this species, olfactory associations facilitate important life-history events, which are unrelated to the immediate foraging responses. Natural selection cannot enable these association as immature larvae and caterpillars become moths. Behavior is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled during all stages of development as best exemplified in the honeybee model organism of ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction.

Early today, I mentioned this: It has been fifty-five years since it became perfectly clear that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation is responsible for hormone-organized and hormone-activated developmental differences in insects, but it seems there will be no end to the confusion about biologically based cause and effect in other species that was introduced via the theory of mutation-initiated evolution. See for example my post about the SICB 2014 meeting abstracts.
See also for information how the metabolism of nutrients to pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction accurately represents biologically-based ecological adaptations sans mutations.

1) Kohl, Johannes et. al. (2013) A Bidirectional Circuit Switch Reroutes Pheromone Signals in Male and Female Brains

2) Kohl, Kevin D (2012) Diversity and function of the avian gut microbiota 

 

 

Author: James Kohl

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