MicroRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 84999
…directional and coordinated information in the thalamocortical circuit is associated with stimulus perception.
The animals were trained to report the presence or absence of a tactile stimulus. Olfactory/pheromonal input does not travel to the thalamus before accessing the forebrain. Feedback loops link the creation of the sense of smell in bacteria to our decisions in the context of our our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
To explain the regulated, rapid, and targeted characteristics of adaptation, the Institute for Creation Research developed a design-based, organism-focused model called continuous environmental tracking (CET). It hypothesizes that as an organism monitors environmental changes, it makes adaptive self-adjustments. Recent discoveries have identified internal tracking mechanisms that have elements that correspond to those in human tracking systems. These findings show that organisms are active, problem-solving entities. Thus, the evolutionary depiction of individual organisms as passive modeling clay actively shaped by their environment is exactly backwards.
The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) model called continuous environmental tracking (CET), exemplifies Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (6/14/13), which refuted the claims about Mutation-Driven Evolution, which also was published on 6/14/13. It is difficult to move forward when ICR insists that the evolution of hecatombic pathology (mutation-driven evolution) actively shaped by their environment is exactly backwards.
Their so-called model pits the facts about energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency and ecological adaptations against everything known to serious scientists about the creation of feedback loops.
…cell replication by division, known as cell-cycle, is a natural phenomenon occurring asynchronously in any cell population.
Feedback loops are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Their cell-cycle does not start with the creation of ATP, which must be linked to the creation of RNA.
…no single mutation in the ancestral genome can circumvent the detected tradeoffs.
…the genetic bases of adaptation and tradeoffs identified here provide additional potential targets for further investigation of whether the detected tradeoffs are caused by intrinsic physiological constraints.
The tradeoffs are intrinsically energy-dependent and biophysically constrained. They were reported as: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005). The feedback loops were detailed in this review of nutritional epigenetics: Nutrient-dependent Pheromone-Controlled Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems (4/18/18)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plants, animals and viruses. Measuring miRNA activity in vivo remains a big challenge. Here, using an miRNA-mediated single guide RNA (sgRNA)-releasing strategy and dCas9–VPR to drive a transgene red fluorescent protein, we create an miRNA sensor that can faithfully measure miRNA activity at cellular levels and use it to monitor differentiation status of stem cells. Furthermore, by designing sgRNAs to target endogenous loci, we adapted this system to control the expression of endogenous genes or mutate specific DNA bases upon induction by cell-type-specific miRNAs. Finally, by miRNA sensor library screening, we discover a previously undefined layer of heterogeneity associated with miR-21a activity in mouse embryonic stem cells. Together, these results highlight the utility of an miRNA-induced CRISPR–Cas9 system as miRNA sensors and cell-type-specific genome regulation tools.