Interdisciplinary integration replaces mutation-driven evolution

Epigenomics and the concept of degeneracy in biological systems

“A multi-level regulatory network consisting of such mechanisms as modular utilization of protein domains, alternative splicing and epigenomic modifications of DNA has been the driving force behind the wide radiation, rapid evolution and evolutionary success of eukaryotic organisms.”

There is more interdisciplinary integration in this article than in any I have ever read. It helps to replace the theory of mutation-initiated natural selection with nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations. Ryszard Maleszka sent a copy of the article to me on 1/8/14, which was two days after I submitted an abstract (see below) for a presentation at the 2014 Association for Chemoreception Sciences annual meeting.

I cited works by Ryszard Maleszka with others several times in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, and was fortunate to be able to include an article published by his group in February 2013, which was the month of my article’s submission. I had the advantage of a preprint that Rysard sent me in November 2012. His works continue to enable me to take a strong scientifically supported stand against the nonsense touted by most evolutionary theorists.

“In the honey bee, the outputs of gene regulatory networks stemming from near identical genomes are altered by differing nutritional intakes which can be considered to be alternate trajectories along an epigenetic landscape. Differential nutrition results in different morphologies, different physiologies, different nervous systems and very different behaviors, all arising from different developmental trajectories that end in queen and worker. (Gabor Miklos & Maleszka, 2011, p. 403)”

“Olfactory/pheromonal input is obviously important to the nutrient-dependent, hormone-organized and hormone-activated pheromone-controlled development of the invertebrate brain and behavior (Dickman, Kucharski, Maleszka, & Hurd, 2013; Lyko et al., 2010; Lyko & Maleszka, 2011).”

“For contrast, the epigenetic tweaking of immense gene networks by nutrient intake (e.g. glucose uptake in cells) exemplifies a vastly more complex synergy. Glucose causes changes in GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude in mammals (Roland & Moenter, 2011). The GnRH pulse controls nutrient-dependent and sex steroid hormone-dependent body odor production in a manner similar to the nutrient-dependent and hormone-dependent production of pheromones in the honeybee model organism and nutrient-dependent pheromone production in microbes. For example, the diet of the honeybee queen determines her pheromone production, which controls interactions among colony members (Gabor Miklos & Maleszka, 2011; Kohl, 2012).”

See also: DNA methylation dynamics, metabolic fluxes, gene splicing, and alternative phenotypes in honey bees

Excerpt: “Such studies will greatly accelerate progress in understanding the roles of DNA methylation in organisms with different levels of complexity by allowing scientists to determine how epigenetic networks have evolved in insects and what consequences they have had for morphological and behavioral change.”

My comment: For anyone who is interested in approaching integrative and comparative biology from a perspective on conserved molecular mechanisms, the works of Ryszard Maleszka are essential indicators of what is currently known about the basic principles of biology and levels of biological organization required to link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genome of species from microbes to man.

Abstact submission #

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations
James V. Kohl. Independent Researcher, Epworth, GA, United States

Chemical ecology drives adaptations via niche construction. Nutrients metabolize to pheromones that epigenetically effect hormones that affect behavior. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input on invertebrate behavior and vertebrate behavior are hormone-organized and hormone-activated. For example: glucose and pheromones alter the secretion of hormones that affect behavior. Systems biology: This model represents the conservation of bottom-up organization and top-down activation via the 1) thermodynamics of nutrient stress-induced and social stress-induced intercellular changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA (miRNA/mRNA) balance; 2) intramolecular changes in DNA via alternative splicings; 3) non-random experience-dependent stochastic de novo gene creation exemplified by the biosynthesis of receptors; 4) the required gene-cell-tissue-organ-organ system pathway that links sensory input directly to gene activation in neurosecretory cells and to miRNA-facilitated learning and memory in the ecologically adapted mammalian brain; and 5) the reciprocity that links the thermodynamics of gene expression to behavior and altered organism-level thermoregulation in species from microbes to man. Examples of nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions clarify the involvement of seemingly futile thermodynamic control of intercellular and intramolecular interactions, which result in de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. Thermodynamically controlled cycles of RNA transcription and protein degradation are responsible for organism-level changes in pheromone production, which enable accelerated changes in the nutrient-dependent miRNA/mRNA balance and thermoregulation of ecological adaptations controlled by the physiology of reproduction.

Author: James Kohl

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