Article excerpt: “The diversity of signaling pathways perhaps make it more robust in triggering innate behaviors.” –C. Ron Yu, Ph.D., senior author of the study.
Whether the required receptor-mediated signal transduction occurs via a VNO and AOS or through the main olfactory system (MOS), it is the molecular biology common to all species that assures us olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail, which can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans.
The GnRH-directed luteinizing hormone (LH) response, which links the epigenetic effects of human pheromones and food odors directly to the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors exemplifies adaptive evolution of a common response to food odors and mammalian pheromones, including human pheromones, as detailed in: Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.