Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems (2)

From the time I published my review of biophysically constrained nutritional epigenetics, which refuted the neo-Darwinian nonsense about mutation-driven evolution, 2834 more publications have mentioned mutations and evolution. For comparison, there are ~12,370 more publications on microRNAs. The additional publications on microRNAs attest to the facts about ecological adaptations in all living genera.

For example: Non-coding RNAs and transposable elements in plant genomes: emergence, regulatory mechanisms and roles in plant development and stress responses (4/16/19)

…non-coding sequences help to regulate gene expression, and are increasingly being recognized as playing an important role in genome organization and function. In this review, we summarize the known molecular mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated by several species of non-coding RNAs (microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs) and by transposable elements. We further discuss how these non-coding RNAs and transposable elements evolve and emerge in the genome…

Only claims about the emergence of energy and the evolution of transposable elements are considered by biologically uninformed theorists.

See for example: A Secreted RNA Binding Protein Forms RNA-Stabilizing Granules in the Honeybee Royal Jelly (4/18/19)

…honeybees have evolved a secreted dietary RNA-binding factor to concentrate, stabilize, and share RNA among individuals.

I detailed nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations in the honeybee model organism in: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (6/14/13)

This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction…

I placed the significance of the honeybee model organism into the context of established claims.

In the honey bee, the outputs of gene regulatory networks stemming from near identical genomes are altered by differing nutritional intakes which can be considered to be alternate trajectories along an epigenetic landscape. Differential nutrition results in different morphologies, different physiologies, different nervous systems and very different behaviors, all arising from different developmental trajectories that end in queen and worker. (Gabor Miklos & Maleszka, , p. 403)

The established claims were linked to what was expected to be learned about the role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, which has since been established (See: microRNA Items: 1 to 20 of >85,650.

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, ; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, ; Griggs et al., ; Monahan & Lomvardas, ) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

For comparison, see: Milk exosomes are bioavailable and distinct microRNA cargos have unique tissue distribution patterns (7/27/18)

Others who have not linked milk exosomes to all biodiversity in mammals via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction include theorists who may think they have a new model.

Example: Reassessment of Exosome Composition 

…we propose a new model for active secretion of extracellular DNA through an autophagy- and multivesicular-endosome-dependent but exosome-independent mechanism.

Autophagy is energy-dependent. The energy is linked to exosome-dependent mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. So far as is known to serious scientists, there are no exosome-independent mechanisms in mammals.

That fact was tentatively established in 1964. See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

The ATP-dependent exosome-dependent creation of RNA links food energy from what mammals eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes.

The question arose: How did the pseudoscientific nonsense about the imaginary imagery of the black hole overshadow these facts during the week of April 10, 2019, which was when the nonsense was announced?

See for an answer: Within-host adaptation mediated by intergenic evolution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4/13/19)

…our results highlight the evolutionary significance of intergenic mutations in creating host-adapted strains, and that intergenic and coding regions have different qualitative contributions to this process.

Mutation-driven evolution has become ecological adaptation during the same time the creation of virucidal sunlight has been linked from the light-sucking black hole to the destruction of all light and and life.



Author: James Kohl

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