Post-transcriptional regulation, mRNA translation, Splicing, mRNA localization, Development, Epigenetic, Biophysics, Ecology, Variant, Constraint, Adaptation, Vitamin, Nutrient, Species, Diversity, RNA structure, RNA folding, High-throughput biophysics, RNA tertiary structure, nucleic acid thermodynamics
About this Research Topic
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression encompasses a variety of cellular processes that determine changes in RNA abundance, localization and function in response to physiological and environmental cues. Numerous molecular mechanisms are at play, including mRNA splicing, editing, decay, transport and translation. This Research Topic will cover two different aspects that highlight the key role of RNA regulation in normal cell function and organism physiology.
See also: rRNA—the evolution of that magic molecule (2015)
“…since the 1970s, many new enzymatic mechanisms that alter genetic sequences have been identified and characterized. If the base pairs in the RNA structure do not evolve with a random mutation model, then what is the mechanism of this evolution?
Thanks to Robin R. Gutell and to Chiara Gamberi for calling my attention to this: Evolution of compensatory substitutions through G.U intermediate state in Drosophila rRNA (1991)
The rate of evolution of compensatory substitution is close to that predicted by a simple model of compensatory substitution through slightly deleterious or slightly advantageous G.U pairs, although some exceptions are presented.
For comparison, theorists claim 6 Million Years Of Human Evolution (video). The video about human evolution attests to the human idiocy manifested by theorists.
For more human idiocy, see: Wnt proteins as modulators of synaptic plasticity
Theorists placed the evolution of proteins and everything else before natural selection for quantized energy-dependent codon optimality.
See for comparison (with my emphasis): Puberty: ontogeny, neuroendocrinology, physiology, and disorders. (1992) Williams Textbook of Endocrinology
…noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic, and opiotergic pathways; inhibitory neurotransmitters (e.g., gamma aminobutyric acid) and excitatory amino acids (e.g., glutamic and aspartic acids); and other brain peptides including pineal secretions (melatonin) and corticotrophin releasing hormone, and the complex interactions among them are subtle but functional species-specific influences on the electrochemical transmission of neuronal signals that the hypothalamus translates to the chemical signal GnRH. (p. 1164).
For comparison to the automagical evolution of Wnt proteins, quantized energy-dependent feedback loops link food odors and pheromones from natural selection for codon optimality to the modulation of the chemical signal GnRH, which alters species-specific diversity in the synaptic plasticity of all mammals.
The fact that thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation are biophysically constrained by the quantized energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and enzymes such as ATP synthase attests to the foolishness of theorists who claim evolution occurs via random mutations that create a non-canonical base pair from a canonical base pair and a random mutation that re-creates a canonical base pair.
Try to support the spurious claims about random mutations and neo-Darwinian evolution with experimental evidence of top-down causation before you attack the religious beliefs of Christians who understand that what organisms eat must be linked from the physiology of reproduction to viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth in Biblical Genesis and in the cell biology game “Cytosis.”
…Cytosis will challenge 2 to 5 players as they compete to build hormones, receptors, and enzymes while using the cellular resources to fend off a viral attack.
The biophysically constrained anti-entropic virucidal quantized energy of food is linked from the creation of ATP to everything that is required to fend off a viral attack.
See also: The science behind the game
You may not be able to think like a scientist if you cannot link the creation of quantized energy (i.e., light) to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via microRNA biogenesis, the creation of enzymes and base pair substitutions.
Biologically uninformed theorists claim that thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation automagically evolved to biophysically constrain the quantized energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and enzymes. Serious scientists have always started with quantized energy-dependent changes in base pairs that have since been linked from the creation of microRNAs to fixation of food energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of the physiology of reproduction.
For example, since 1964 serious scientists have linked the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA in the context of oxidative phosphorylation.
See: Nutrient-dependent Pheromone-Controlled Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems (2018) from the current issue of Journal of Genetics and DNA Research